Infantile hemangioma or childhood hemangioma is a benign vascular tumor caused by abnormal growth of blood vessels that do not offer risk to the health of the individual, however, may disturb by appearance and location.
Hemangioma is more common in newborn girls and may be single or multiple lesions located on the face, scalp, or trunk.
How to Identify Hemangioma?
It is possible to identify the superficial lesion with red and bright color, similar to the color of the strawberry shortly after birth. When they are deeper lesions, they have bluish or violet tint. During the first year of life, hemangioma has rapid growth in volume extension, especially in the first six months of the child’s life.
From this period, the growth of the lesion is interrupted and the involution process may occur, which allows the total disappearance of the condition throughout life without the need for medication or surgery.
However, some cases of hemangioma may be more complicated, such as ulceration, especially in lesions located in areas of friction such as accommodation regions of diapers, elbows, shoulders, knees and lips. Frictional ulceration can cause pain, bleeding, and secondary infections. In cases of hemangioma in the eye area, the lesion may compromise vision, especially those located on the eyelids.
Children who have more than five lesions in the body should undergo imaging tests, such as ultrasound, tomography or RESONANCE for the identification of hemangioma in the internal organs, especially in the liver, a condition that does not offer health risk and may disappear over time.
Hemangiomas That Are Indicative of Treatment:
There is not yet a standard protocol for the treatment of hemangiomas, but in specific situations treatment should be initiated in the following cases:
- 1.Palpebral occlusion – eyelid occlusion in the first months of life can cause amaurosis due to lack of luminous stimulus or amblyopia.
- 2.Genital/Anal – often grow and ulcerate causing a painful ulcer, in addition to tissue loss and aesthetic disfigurement – In addition, they are generally complicated by secondary infection.
- 3.Labial/Palpebral Edge and Auditory Conductive (Periorificial) – often ulcerate causing aesthetic disfigurement.
- 4.Nose tip – grow a lot in volume and, secondary form, can promote the destruction of the nose cartilages. It also produces aesthetic disfigurement. They tend to regress very slowly and leave a permanent nasal deformity, difficult to correct.
- 5.Extensive Segmentals – Phace Syndrome, Pelvis and Sacral.
- 6. – Any location with accelerated growth and significant aesthetic impairment.
- 7.Congenital Nich – This hemangioma may require treatment depending on location. The tendency is to grow and not regress over time.
- 8.Kasabach-Merrit syndrome – Most cases have histology of kaposiform hemangioendothelioma or tufted hemangioma. The lesion increases in volume, leading to thrombocytopenia (platelet hijacker hemangioma), CIVD and eventually death.
- 9.Visceral (Multiple Hemangiomatosis with Visceral Involvement) – hemangiomas may be present in the liver and CNS.
How to Treat Hemangioma
In general, after the diagnosis of hemangioma, specialists seek to perform early treatment to reduce growth and the chances of sequelae that may compromise the child’s aesthetic health. In general, after the diagnosis of hemangioma, specialists seek to perform early treatment to reduce growth and the chances of sequelae that may compromise the child’s aesthetic health. The treatment indicated for small lesions consists in the use of beta-blocker medications (propanalol), used to treat heart problems and was accidentally discovered for its action that prevents the growth of hemangioma. The drug should be used in accordance with medical guidelines.
Hemangioma surgery is recommended in cases of extensive injuries that hinder movement or compromise the aesthetic health of the patient. The procedure consists of removal of hemangioma and marriage to healthy skin.
Hemangioma surgery is considered a simple procedure that offers low risk of life.
How is the Postoperative
The postoperative surgery of hemangioma is considered simple and offers little care that should be followed according to the guidelines of the plastic surgeon:
- The use of analgesics should be done according to the dose given by the specialist to eliminate pain and discomfort in the first days after the procedure. In cases of severe pain accompanied by fever, the doctor should be sought immediately.
- It is recommended that you avoid exposure to the sun for 30 days to prevent the formation of stains at the healing site.
How to Do Hemangioma Surgery?
Dr Vishal Patel is a plastic surgeon with specialization in child plastic surgery and hemangioma surgery. Contact us and make an assessment to take care of your child’s health and quality of life.